“The race was run in 7 min, 20seconds, carrying 8 stone 7lb. Mr Fenwick offered to run Matchem against any horse in the world”
” The Godolphin Arabian and **Roxana union produced two good horses, Lath and Cade and Cade continued the male line which has been represented by Hurry On, Precipitation to have exerted a potent influence in New Zealand in the 20th century.” P. Willets 1981.
Good genetics are cryptic.
Some years back, I read about Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine recipient; the cytogeneticist Barbara McClintock. Her great research and ground-breaking work to transposing genes – the jumping gene. It is where the genome can translocate its position in the DNA, for repair and save type behavior.
The ‘jumping gene’ knits survival, enduring ‘existence’ for the specie itself.
The genetic material is mobile, inter-changeable – 2 types can copy and paste or cut and paste. It can insert or delete to its main principle as ecologically adaptive.
To all forms of life, (mammalian) the exploratory field has no bounds.
I am not aware of any examination to the thoroughbred, but McClintock’s science such intrigued: I postulated ‘trait’ may re-emerge from distance and have ‘unforeseen’ character to the pedigree.
Incredible detail from old bloodstock literature drives deep consideration; constitutional innate elements have presence, vitality... endurance & ‘resistance’ where horses ran all day, records past 35 starts or so, a capability to run at any distance.
Certainly no such thing now and we wonder, why not the ability?
Theories of distance and aptitude ‘correct’ for progeny: DNA genetics to provide appropriate sire selection is the business. But is it right?
Goodbye they say….where heritage progenitors, to stud records are incorrect. Such corrections have changed an entire landscape but let’s agree, pedigree still has vital clues and account of what is capably working.
Though we might be dis-satisfied to modern day breeding, racing to ‘soft’ distances, improving still (?) preciousness speed over stamina, without furthering programs to make-em tough development, what remains is genetic material cannot be be lost but only understood much further that one could expect.
Our earliest heritage TB breeding books, the authors and breeders, didn’t know of a transposing, jumping ‘gene’ but went ‘learned’ and practiced in animal husbandry.
“a recognized axiom with both physiologists and practical breeders of all kinds of stock, that the value of any family is mainly in proportion to the purity of its origin” Breeding Racehorses by the Figure System by Bruce Lowe.
“The home-bred English horse, so much praised by Caesar, and after him by many other writers on this subject, on account of its staying powers and speed, contributed very largely to the building up of the English Thoroughbred. These native-bred horses in England and Ireland had the character of the wild horses of the Steppes, and are mentioned as living in the the forests as late as the seventeenth century, with the remark that they were better and more capable than any other breed in Europe reference Sportsman Dictionary 1778”. Horse Breeding in Theory and Practice . B Von Oettingen 1909
“eleven unknown Sources (including Old Montagu), six from Royal Mares, two each from Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Barb, Hutton’s Bay Barb, the Lister Turk, the old Morocco mare and one each from the Akaster Turk, the Byerley Turk, Bustler mare, a Brimmer mare and a Barb mare. The Horse-Breeders Handbook – Joseph Osborne 1898.
As many as 102 Eastern stallions were used to the building of the Thoroughbred and besides these many other Eastern stallions imported and used by breeders in England and Ireland though their results reportedly, of meagre influence. From 1635 starting with Lord Fairfax’s Morocco Barb to listed 36 stallions at ending 1730 the, Godolphin Arabian where these (above) are noted to have a stronger conspicuous part to breeding of Thoroughbreds. (end)
The above early first-hand narratives are to show the rise n’ fall: disappearances of numerous lineages. What remains is still inheritable. More to the point speed, needs resilience not more absolute ‘speed’ traits.
Science updates domestic horse breeding – to its inbreeding, sighting lack of diversity as its been around long as 200 years. Bloodstock Historians shall point – the evolutionary/ecological phrase.. horses always were, without any caution, a domestic type, commonly incest bred.
In-breeding is to re-introduce desirable traits. The ‘scoring’ and phenotype results are to be keenly observed, critiqued from every possible angle, a check-list through to all stages of development, through and through. This the inborn genetic pattern over generation and generations. It is a cycle and a long one, cycle within cycles.
“the Old Moroccan mare first bred her son Spanker and that Spanker incestuously bred Betty Leeds’s grandmother from his own mother, the Old Moroccan mare.” Early Records of the Thoroughbred Horse C.N. Prior – Betty Leedes, the foundation family 6 from Old Bald Peg, **Roxana, dam of Cade, sire of Matchem.
The due diligence remains and it is to still follow potent genetic influences available.
Firstly however, reflect Lady Wentworth – Thoroughbred Racing Stock: where she calculated these astounding pedigree strains to Bahram (Blandford).
- Unknown Arabian – appears 222,281 times
- Darcy’s chestnut Arabian – appears 179, 105 times
- Darcy’s white Arabian – appears 123,037 times
- Leeds Arabian – appears 112.667 times
- Helmsley Turk – appears 66,893 times
- The Byerley Turk – appears 64,032 times
- The Darley Arabian – appears 44,079 times
- Lister Turk – appears 40,305 times
- The Godolphin Barb – appears 28,232 times
(sidenote: I have no idea how these went calculated but it is appreciated early pedigree ‘wheels’ do account & specific detail has Source of Origin to dam and Greater progenitor.)
To further convey importance of contribution: strain or trait, the terrain of genotype is detail, detail & more detail. The example is – “Mr Joseph Osbourne contends that the merit of Eclipse was quite as much (if not considerably more) due to the five strains of the Lister Turk, than to the single strain of the Darley Arabian” 1909
Osbourne further states: “Therefore, when you see a figure in a pedigree it is indefinite. It may mean entirely different blood in different pedigree, and you search further to have an intelligent knowledge of the bloodlines of the animal” – The Horse Breeders Handbook, Joseph Osbourne
The magic appears and it is the Matchem male-line descendancy to Hurry On and sons thereof….to provide rich potent source, constitutional, quality and robust as ‘renewable and sustainable’ balance to breeding.
where/how/why…this wider Intelligence, the bloodlines of the animal.
Hurry On, his grand-sire MARCO as seen below (1892 – Baraldine – Novitiate, by Hermit)
Marco did not take part in Classics but had the reputation of being the best three year old of 1895 due to his impressive victory the Cambridgeshire Stakes The handicapper penalized heavy his success & thereafter Marco is able to win only twice more over the two seasons. Not expected to excel at stud he sires four quality stallions where two are top class runners.
His daughter, the elite and founding mare of the 1-W family, Marchetta. An influential blue-hen she produced of 13 foals, nine winners one of these, the élite and multiple black-type producer mare Sweet Lavender. Her French-bred daughter Lavendula the grand-dam to Turn-To (IRE) by Royal Charger, sire of Hail to Reason and Sir Gaylord.
– *Neil Gow by Marco 1909 National Breeders Produce Stakes, Champagne Stakes, Imperial Produce Stakes, 1910 Two Thousand Guineas and a dead heat for the Eclipse Stakes. Won £25,771. Dies after 8 seasons at stud before making his real impact on Stud Books of the world. His son Re-echo wins 8 races and is sent to Argentina having great success as a stallion. His daughters are excellent broodmares but limited by numbers.
– Omar Khayyam (Marco) he is the best three year old in the U.S, the same year his great sire dies. Omar K. is the first English-bred winner of the Kentucky Derby. 1920 he stands at Claiborne Farm and 1929 relocated to Virginia.
Marco’s other sons Beppo, Bembo, Bronzino and Marten where runners of merit.
Marco Polo (GB) is exported to US 1917.
Marco, sire of Marcovil & My Prince , the sire of Grand National steeplechasers – Grega,lach, Reynoldstown, Royal Mail. Marco’s son Springlawn, goes to South Africa.
– *Neil Gow (Marco) his daughter Best Wishes is the grandam of colt Felicitation, winner of the Ascot Gold Cup. He beat Hyperion. Felicitation has eight stud seasons in England before exported to Brazil. Represented by Jolly Joker (BRZ) ⇒⇒ Thignon Lafre (BRZ) by Henri Le Balofre (FR) x Mignon (BRZ), & exceptional, male line Hurry On/Precipitation descendant.
– daughter Perce-Neige produces Coronation Cup winner the French bred Winterhalter, winner of 7 races over 3 seasons. Perce-Neige also produces Rose of England, G1 winner Oaks Stakes and Star of England, winner of the Yorkshire Oaks. Her daughter Catherine Glover is imported by Charles Howard to be mated with Seabiscuit.
– daughter Herself, produces Chatelaine, an Oaks winner. Herself is the 3rd dam to Grand Prix de Paris winner Avenger and the Cambridgeshire winner Raymond later sent to Japan 1934.
– daughter Nilghai, dam of Leonard 7 wins, winner of Northumberland Plate
– Santa Cruz, dam of 7 winners, her French bred daughter Drift, the dam of Heliopolis (Hyperion) and 2x leading sire on export to America. Heliopolis, notably sire of Olympia (*TBL blog-notes to Olympia → American Pharoah pows a ‘Grand Slam’ and review Lucky Pulpit (USA) sire of California Chrome → how chrome, turns to Gold: California Chrome
– Drift’s daughter, Tideway, a champion 2 year old winner and winner of 1,000 Guineas becomes a genetic giant produces Gulf Stream by Hyperion champion 2 year old colt in England and exported to Argentina. Leading sire in Argentina 3x 1955, 1959 , 1959. Gulf Stream Progeny listings Here
“Neil Gow’s name never appeared as champion maternal grandsire but the great influence exercised by his comparatively few daughters show that they were of exceptional merit” – Leicester
*Marcovil was far from the first-class performer and though kept in training over four years was greatly hampered by bad forelegs. He went to stud to lesser bloodstock regions in Sussex. Just as Marcovil was making headway as a reputable sire & just when son Hurry On appears on the race track, he dies of paralysis during his 1917 breeding season.
In 1939 the steeple-chaser Prince Regent (by My Prince by Marcovil) is prevented from becoming a hero and steeple chasing legend due to WW II over 5 career racing seasons. He is nevertheless noted and remembered for his enduring stamina to harsh weights, and under severe testing conditions to his racing.
– My Prince (Marcovil) grand-dam sire of the outstanding and greatest steeplechaser that ever lived Arkle (IRE). Arkle (IRE) had phenomenal accuracy to his jumps, he never fell and overlapped his forelegs with his hind-legs to the style of a greyhound. He was reported to have an exceptionally low heartbeat.
Marcovil certainly produced and amongst them, the broodmare Miss Matty (she the dam of Papyrus a Derby winner and Papyrus is broodmare sire of Princequillo. Miss Matty produced eight other winners. Note also the appearance of grand broodmare sire ⇒Papyrus/Miss Matty to the pedigree of Tesio-bred Ribot
Hurry On (GB) by Marcovil (Marco) from mare Toute Suite by Sainfoin. Hurry On is unbeaten 6 from 6. A champion sire. Sire, Marcovil is inbred to Hermit and the petite-built dam Toute Suite inbred to Stockwell. Hurry On has Varola’s, chefs-de-race professional classification.
Hurry On was over 17 hands, approximately 83 inches of girth and over 9 inches of bone. His progeny inherited stamina, soundness, longevity and stoutness. He headed both the list of sires of winners and sires of winning broodmares. At the time, he maintained and revived the Matchem line which was almost dead at the time he went to stud.
His stock included the 3 Derby winners Captain Cuttle, Coronach and Call Boy. St Leger winner, Coronach. Two Oaks winners, Toboggan and Pennycomequick, two 1000 Guineas winners, Plack and Cresta Run. The Ascot Gold Cup winner Precipitation and his daughter Instantaneous, the breeder of Court Martial.
Hurry On’s sire son Precipitation, earns chef-de-race Professional.
Down Under – Australasia’s major stamina lines as expressed by bloodstock writer, Ross du Bourg.
– Precipitation (Hurry On) chestnut horse 1933. Not an early developer it was at four, he was the finest stayer of his age with a good turn of foot. He won seven races from one and a half miles to two and a half miles including the 1937 Ascot Gold Cup in near record time of 4 min. 18.8 seconds.
He provided a more important factor post war in Australian and New Zealand than in Europe. The staying genes of his male line dynasty thrived and flourished. The influential stallions sons include Summertime, Count Rendered, Agricola, Admiral’s Luck, Golovine, Macquario, Rasleight, Supreme Court’s full brother Court Command. The imported Avalanche (GB) (Precipitation) who sired the Australian mare Pushover for 16 wins inclusive Adelaide Cup, Turnbull Stakes, VRC Australian cup.
– Precipitation, sire of Supreme Court and broodmare sire to Courtessa producing the great genetic ‘royal’ maternal Eight Carat (Pieces of Eight/Relic) the female dynasty to five G1 winners Diamond Lover (AUS), Mouawad (NZ), Cotehele House (NZ), Octagonal (NZ) Kaapstad (NZ). Courtessa also produced 3 year old European champion the Irish bred Habibiti. Cotehele House (eight Carat) 4×4 to Australia’s 2020 Caulfield cup winner (2400m) New Zealand bred mare, Verry Elleegant (Zed) . The jockey comments, she is not easy to ride.
Somewhat bred-alike – Mystic Journey AUS (by Needs Further (AUS), a $A11.000 yearling buy returning $A3864,375. The story goes someone did not like her knees. She is a winner of the VRC Australian Guineas, her dam is 2x Klairessa/Courtessa.
– Supreme Court produced Pipe of Peace (GB). Pipe of Peace is a champion 2 year colt in UK. He is exported to Australia and a quality sire. He produces, Always There, a quality performer racing in Australia and North America and rated best Southern Hemisphere 3 year old by British Bloodstock reviews. The mare Regal Peace, a 1000 Guineas winner. And, winner of the Queensland Derby – gelding, Dark Briar. Pipe of Peace, sire of numerous black-type producers.
– Supreme Court produces champion UK hurdler Magic Court.
Court Martial , chefs-de-race Brilliant classified (Fair Trial – Instantaneous by Hurry On).
– Court Martial 2,000 Guineas winner and twice champion sire. At age 16 years, he is sold to US after 1958 breeding season. Died at Claibourne Farm 1966. Recognized for producing 2 year old winners. Renowned for a perfect, racing temperament and was passed to his stock. Sire of the French-bred **Wilkes, and Australia’s 3x winning sire, he produced sprinting sensation the great Vain. He himself a sire of tremendous quality and well recognized to the 3×4 in-bred Vain pedigree to mare Black Caviar: ‘diamonds’ within a pedigree, Unbeaten for 25 wins.
– Court Martial in his 1st US crop, sired Goofed, the dam of celebrated stallion Lyphard (Northern Dancer). Lyphard refer him to Deep Impact (Sunday Silence) and Contrail (JPN) 7 for 7 wins: Hurry On factors via Caro the dam Chamcord, daughter of Chamossaire, son of Precipitation.
– notice Caro to the pedigree of Californinan Chrome’s sire. Lucky Pulpit additionally plus 7 Princequillo Miss Matty ‘linked’ dosages, + Turn-to https://www.pedigreequery.com/lucky+pulpit
Another Precipitation sire-son Sheshoon, winner of the Prix de l’arc de Triomphe, French Derby and French St Leger and leading European sire 1970. Sheshoons stallion son, Sassafras is the French-bred sire of Henri Le Balafre, a classic sire in Brazil AND HURRY ON MALE LINE descendant. His son – Thignon Lafre (BRZ). He highlights 7 strains to Marco, via Marcovil, Beppo, Neil Gow
Inheritance to Hurry On temperament swayed. Hurry On sons Precipitation and Tesio-bred Nesiotes came genuine and fought hard to the finishing lines where as Captain Cuttle and Coronach demonstrated lack. Nesiotes sired Fante (ITY) a winner Gran Premio di Milano
– Coronach is however noted as well patronized by Federico Tesio to produce Italy Derby & Oak winners Jacopa del Sellaio, – Niccolo Dellarca, multiple G1 winner in Italy and a prominent broodmare sire – De Albertis (Italian hurdler and great sire in Denmark)
Tesio remarked Niccolo Dellarca ‘knew how to breath’
– Coronach also bred Marcel Boussac’s, Corrida (FR). Corrida the dam of Coaraze sired by Tourbillon and prominent sire in Brazil. Another Coronach son of high-merit and French-bred Cranach went confiscated by Germans when a two year old but won 11 races upon their ownership. Repatriated at the end of WWII he did well as a sire in France producing the German-bred Violoncelle, capturing numerous distant titles & G1 inclusive. Violoncelle went to Brazil, becoming a class sire. Violoncelle had a full sister Flute Enchantee, the dam of Luthier (FR). Luthier the stallion, champion 1st crop sire in France, 4x Leading French sire, 8x Leading Broodmare sire. Then there is Ciel Etoile, the winner of the French St. Leger.
The Hurry On stallion son – Hunters Moon, a half brother to Hyperion, a reasonable performer of 3 wins from 8 starts but it is his Hurry On/Selene genetics which see him exported to Argentina in 1929, then to Brazil in 1944.
– Precipitation son, Summertime, a talented stayer in England for 15 starts for 7 wins, 10 – 14 furlongs. Summertime a shapely, beautiful made near black horse of notable balance and symmetry to a placed nature and preferred to be outside, rather than boxed. He has titles to 3 New Zealand general financial sires premierships, one Australian broodmare financial sires’ premiership and four time times qualified for the Dewar Stallion Trophy being the leading New Zealand based sire on the combined Australian and New Zealand stake-earning list seasons, 1950/60, ’62/63, ’63/64, ’64/65.
Summertime – his high class stock, acceleration, adaptability to almost any racing condition and magnificent sire of broodmares. A special and specialized branch to Precipitation, his most exceptional son was Sobig.
– Sobig, massive, well constructed near-black of scope and substance showed all fire and spirited energy of a king’s charger. Sheer power exuded but less than 4 years he dies from lung cancer.
Sobig raced 40 times, over 3 seasons for 12 wins from 5 furlongs to 1,1/2 miles. High quality winners sired by Sobig are So Called wins G1,2,3 titles from 1400m to 2700m inclusive of Cox Plate and Underwood Stakes 1978. His breeding was 3×4 Precipitation.
– Think Big, 9 wins inclusive the 1974 and ’75 VRC Melbourne Cup.
– Soliloquy – top class sprinting and black-type producer mare
Count Rendered (Precipitation) – a solid middle-distancer stayer as a 3 year old colt, winning 3 from 9 starts over 10 furlongs to 13 furlongs. Sire of champion classic galloper and successful stallion Syntax. 19 wins from 34 starts, champion 3 year old of the Year and NZ Horse of the Year- multiple winner in New Zealand and Australia of Derby, Oaks & Leger. Able to cover all distances.
Syntax was strikingly handsome, perfectly conformed and most underrated galloper. The Count Rendered branch to Precipitation died.
Agricola (Precipitation) – leading sire in New Zealand 1967/68, Dewar Stallion Trophy award and Australian general sires premiership title.
(n.b. the above details are credited to Ross du Bourg, The Australian and New Zealand Thoroughbred)
The passages of time and modern sources welcome ‘ascent’ strains of Hurry On and ‘Matchem’. Is this the TRANSPOSING/Jumping gene?
Modern pedigrees infused, via Hurry On/Precipitation dam lines are seen to the sire Lunchtime (Silly Season (USA) from Great Occasion (GB) by Hornbeam (GB). Lunchtime sired Snippets the Australian champion 3 year old sprinter in turn siring Pins, the phenomenal sire of Hong Kong G1 sprinting sensation Aerovelocity (NZ) and 2x Hong Kong Horse of the Year – Ambitious Dragon (NZ).
CURRENT PERFORMERS or STALLIONS are
Melody Belle (NZ) by Commands: multiple G1 performer in New Zealand, placed in Australia. Distances 1100m to 2000m. 34 starts for 17 wins. 5th dam sire Summertime/Precipitation/Hurry On
Probabeel (NZ) by Savabeel: Australiasian multiple G1 performer. 18 starts for 8 wins. Distances 1200 – 1600m. 7x’s to Princequillo, 6x’s Lavendula, Hurry On 9sx9dx9D
Mo’unga (NZ) by Savabeel: colt, 4 starts for 3 wins. 6th dam by Summertime. Hurry On 9sx9Dx9Dx9dx9D via Toboggan, Coronach, Instanteneous, Precipitation. 8 x’s to Princequillo
re-tired, Chatauqua (AUS) by Encosta de Lago known as the gray flash: 8x Hurry On via Coronach, Althea, Panic, Quick Change, Instantaneous, Jiffy, Diligence
Daredevil (USA) by More than Ready. Sire of Swiss Skydiver and Shedaresthe devil. Daredevil carries: Coronach (Hurry On) 9sx8D via Corrida, Niccolo Dellarac + 4x’s to Papyrus + 2x Turn-to via Halo + Indian Chief (ARG) 3rd dam by Hunters Moon/Hurry On
Swiss Skydiver (USA) – her 4th dam sire Castle Hill (GB) is a source to Chateau Bouscaut (see below)
Animal Kingdom (USA) stallion by Leridoexanimax. 4×4 Lyphard/Court Martial. 8x’s Hurry On via Coronach, Precipitation, Jury, Saddle Tor, Instantaneous, Chamossaire +2x’s Chateau Bouscaut (FR) via The Phoenix & Chanteur (important notes below)
George Washington (BRZ) by Redattore (BZ) (source of Luthier (FR)– colt, 2020 G 1winner @ 2400m Sao Paulo.
English King (FR)by Camelot (GB). A 3 year old Colt, sold to Australia. (GB) – 6x’s Djebel via Djeddah, Djebellica, Arbar, Clarion + 2x Chateau Bouscaut + Lyphard (Court Martial) + Ahonoora (Djebel, Klarioin, Marchetta, The Phoenix, Court Martial)
Storm the Court (USA) by Court Vision. Eclipse Champion 2 year old Male. 3x’s Hurry On via Jury & Precipitation. Gulch (USA) → Rambunctious (USA), 3rd dam by Hurry On.+ Storm Bird (USA)/New Providence from dam by Preciptic by Precipitation, + Tejano Run (USA) via, Caro → Chamossaire/Precipitation + Riva Ridge (USA) via Turn-To and Riva’s dam, Iberia (USA) by Heliopolis from dam Drift, gand-dam Santa Cruz by NEIL GOW (MARCO) + Princequillo (Miss Matty)
Ole Kirk (AUS) by Written Tycoon (AUS) from dam, full sister to Black Caviar. *Hot Press* will stand at Vinery Stud (AUS). Ole Kirk 4x4x5 Vain/** Wilkes/ Court Martial
Catholic Boy (USA) by More than Ready – from Argentinian dam line La Sevilliana, champion 2 year old and 3 year old in Argentina Her sire is Court Harwell (GB) from the dam line to Precipitation. Le Sevilliana, the dam of The Tempress (USA), the dam of Canadian champion 3year old filly La Largnette . La Sevilliana/Precipitation + Turn-To 4 x’s via Hail to Reason, Sir Gaylord, First Landing + 7 x’s Princequillo/Miss Matty
Argentina – The Yuvaraj (GB) 1943
(broodmare) grand-daughter of La Sevilliana Song of Bernadette (USA) i.e. Precipitation (side note , her exceptional distaff)
(the nearest identified sources to Neil Gow (Marco) has French-bred stallion Chateau Bouscaut (1927) where Neil Gow is broodmare sire. Was a Champion 2 year old colt.
Worden (Fr) & 1/2 brother **Wilkes to their dam Sans Taras, 3rd dam Jean Gow by Neil Gow (Marco)
Djebel (by Tourbillon) → Gay Crusader (GB) broodmare sire Beppo by Marco
¹The Hurry On line is celebrated for having provided some of the most powerful specimens of the Thoroughbred, but its existence is always hanging by a thread….
(Finally, but not at all Least are the central cycles )
‘S’ for speed & stamina = BALANCE
through the ‘S’ team (refer below)
through the ‘S’ bend, pivotal
Hurry On (Marcovil from Tout Suite ( by SAINFOIN by Springfield, from SANDA)
Sanda, is incestuously inbred to the brothers Rataplan and Stockwell, sons of the famous mare Pocahontas.
Sainfoin and full sister SIERRA.
Sainfoin, sire of ROCK SAND, broodmare sire of Man o’ War.
– *Broodmare sire of Phalaris from a dam line to Springfield. His dam Bromus 2×4 Springfield.
Sundridge (Amphion from SIERRA by Springfield) ⇔ Mumtaz Mahal: grand-dam of Nasrullah and Mahmoud. (sprinter/speed)
Sunstar by Sundridge (Sierra)
“3rd phase to evolution of speed the era of Nasrullah, Royal Charger, Mahmoud, War Admiral, Court Martial, Petition, Tudor Minstrel to ‘Domino’ the speed strains eventually crossed successfully with Princequillo, who carries Tracery via Papyrus (Miss Matty) i.e. speed to stamina = solid (n.b slightly alterated – this reference credit Ken McLean.
special thanks to Gilberto Junquiera for providing the Brazilian breeding references. Gilberto shares his wide knowledge & family history to the Mangalarga breed on his blog http:/mangalargamangalarga.blogspot.com
references ¹ Typology of the Racehorse – Franco Varola
100 Greatest Racehorses – Julian Wilson
Bloodstock Breeding – Sir Charles Leicester
The Classic Racehorse – Peter Willett
Horse-Breeders Handbook – J. Osbourne
Horse Breeding in Theory & Practice – B. von Oettingen